One of the oldest breeds of China, more than 3 centuries ago farmers from small land holdings of local geese crossed for highly productive breeds. The first Beijing duck appeared in the Western part of the country, where most of the mountainous terrain. In the conditions of a small number of pastures, rain, wind, frost tempered breed and acquired strong immunity. In subsequent years, the Beijing geese actively disseminated to all corners of China. But the geography of the breed did not end there, in the late 19th century, the ducks started exporting to Europe and America, where they have also become very popular. In the post-Soviet space Peking duck – it is one of the most popular beef breeds.
The main characteristics of the Beijing duck are large massive body with well-developed muscles, deep chest and broad, straight back. On the ducks are well built up meat in adulthood, they weigh about 3-4 kg. Peking ducks per year are about 100 eggs, weighing about ’90 Limbs short, close together, so the walk is quite clumsy and from the looks even funny.
The ducklings are born small and clumsy, but by the age of 2 months is pretty good okrepayut and weigh an average of 2.5-3 kg. It’s quite a lot of weight, given that they are born in 50 times less. Often Beijing geese slaughtered in this age, when the meat more tender and not as fat as a mature ducks. With a young duckling, you can get up to 80% of production, with 70% of them will become part of the meat.
Slaughter is usually carried out in late summer – early autumn, as the young starts to fade later. The process of shedding weight affects ducklings, in this period, they are a little lose weight and gain new weight very slowly, even with enhanced feeding. All the forces duck body spends on preparation for winter: start to form feathers and finally all organs are formed. When the pen is formed primarily grows the so-called stump from which will develop and pen. When the slaughter and processing of carcasses from the stumps quality significantly deteriorates as hemp it is very difficult to remove from the skin. Therefore, the majority of poultry farmers rarely grow birds to adulthood.
To digest the rather large number of food and gain weight well, Peking ducks have a more intense metabolism than other breeds. The body temperature is quite high, the norm is 42.2 with a respiratory rate of 30-35 breaths. Another striking feature, which affects the weight gain is a short intestine. This allows the physiology to gain weight quickly, thanks to good digestion. Solids Peking duck can be processed in 4 hours, and more soft or mushy – 3 hours. Therefore, it is worth remembering that if you want quick and qualitative results, feed ducks must be constantly and continuously.
The feed Peking duck is not very capricious, the main thing – it’s diversity. The more ducks vitamins and other useful things, the better it will affect their productive capacities. To feed suitable grains, vegetables, fruits, kitchen scraps, bread. Insufficient amounts of some elements can lead to weight loss or moulting, it can also affect egg wear.
Peking ducks have well-developed vocal cords, so create a lot of noise in the yard. Sometimes it can be a significant problem, especially for beginners poultry farmers. The noise level can be significantly reduced if the ducks will be in a quiet environment. The more noise in the poultry yard and shout, the more Beijing duck get nervous and screaming in response. Therefore, they should be settled in the most peaceful part, not to create unnecessary interference.
Peking duck pets and poultry farmers beginners and professionals. Their quality is highly productive, not aggressive in nature, strong immunity – it is those qualities that are so attracted to all farmers. Safety of young and mature specimens of the Beijing duck at a very high level, so they are fairly easy to breed any interested person without special skills in poultry. They easily experience any illness, even serious infectious and resistant to parasites, which are fairly easy to pick up in the environment. Ducks themselves are hatching their eggs and can be driven for a long time with ducklings. If ducks are grown in an incubator or very young were purchased, then it is necessary to adhere to the temperature regime. It is necessary to allocate a small place, where the average temperature will be 20-30 degrees becoming so ducklings develop normally. This should be done at least for a week, while the ducklings do not get stronger.
Ideally, of course, to duck ducklings she cared for, then they grow faster and suffer less. If this is not possible, then it is necessary to use artificial heating, and most importantly that there was no temperature extremes. From that the conditions in which to grow the newborn ducklings depends on the state of ducks in adulthood. So do not compromise on warmth.
In addition to artificial light can use a variety of heating pads. The most safe and effective is considered to be a water heater. Its principle of robots – a release of heat by the rubber surface of the hot water that is inside. You can simplify the task, and pour the water into an ordinary plastic bottle, but should check the level of the walls of the heating to the ducklings are not overheated. Another reliable way to provide both heat and light – a light bulb. With their help, the ducklings will also be a good idea to warm up. The only time when you can do without the additional heating is when the ducklings quite late and were born in the summer. If the summer is hot enough, you need to follow only for night temperatures, as in the day, you can refuse to heating.
Peking duck private space require a bit, so the room to keep the birds can do little. Calculate like this: 1 sq.m. 12-15 ducklings. The main thing that it was a dry, well-ventilated, and had a chance to clean it often. Maintaining hygiene in the poultry houses is very important, it affects their health and productivity. though they have a good immunity, but can be seriously affected due to such conditions in dirty and wet areas will get divorced disease and parasites, and Peking duck. It is best if the room and the floor will be wood to winter was not cold feet can be litter hay or straw.
To duck feel more comfortable in the house to do a manhole, it is usually done in the south wall. It must be tightly closed to avoid creating drafts, because the strong air currents are dangerous to any breed, not only ducks, but also other animals. The room is also important to air so that the air was clean. Do not be afraid, if the temperature in the house a little fall or rise (especially if there are young), it will not affect much on the health of the ducks.
Proper conditions of detention affect the appearance and appetite ducks: they move a lot, quickly, a lot of eating and have a healthy and soft fluff. Overheating is also dangerous for young ducklings as hypothermia. If duckling becomes hot, it begins to want to drink a lot, there zadyshka, he does not want to eat and go, become very passive. If the temperature is below 25 degrees, the ducklings begin to freeze; they squeak a lot, slipping into a pile where in search of warmth often suffocated or trampled by others. Especially dangerous is not to adhere to the temperature regime at night, when it is impossible to keep track of ducklings. Low temperatures at night leads to a large number of deaths of ducks, so you should pay attention to the temperature of the ducklings, before going to bed.
In order to further warm the young Peking duck can be the bottom of the box or the floor of the house to lay such materials sawdust, hay, dry leaves. It will further warm the ducklings, but should then every 2 days to change the litter to accumulate excess moisture.
Newborn ducklings do not need just food. Usually they have a hunger on the second day, when they are already dry up and begin to move. During this period, should be given special feed ground for active growth. The best option would be food that is rich in protein: boiled and chopped egg, cheese, cereal porridge or well-milled grain. It is also important to start giving a little green, but after a while the ducklings will themselves take an interest in the grass in the yard. The most valuable is considered young nettles, clover, dandelion and common green grass that grows in any yard, field or in the woods. To add a bit of greenery can be chopped boiled potatoes. To ducklings grew quickly, and can not hurt to add calcium to the feed. At home, it’s easy to get just chop the shells from eggs.
Number of greenery should occupy most of among all other types of feed. It was from there ducklings take all necessary substances for growth and development, and the remaining feed only allow to increase the mass. Therefore, if you want to not only the heavy duck, but also healthy, it is impossible to save on the greens. A mixture of cereals, vegetables and milk (broth, serum) allow youngsters to 6 times a day, but with age, the number of servings decreases as adults ducks graze on their own outdoors.
Very useful for ducks is duckweed, so the presence of the pond near the farm is encouraged. This is not only very useful, but also nutritious. Aquatic vegetation replaces half of all feed and generates excellent productive qualities.